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Institution

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Gentrification involves the renovation and improvisation of a houses or district in order to make it suitable for the middle class. However, according to the scholars of urban management, gentrification is much more than just aesthetic changes to the district. This essay will discuss the causes of gentrification and urban displacement in San Francisco Bay Area coupled with its impacts. In addition, this essay will discuss the solutions to some of the worst aspects of gentrification and urban displacement.

Discussion

Causes

Albeit, Bay Area of San Francisco has witnessed gentrification lately, however, the roots of gentrification go back much further. One of the main causes of gentrification is institutionalized racism that paved the way for redlining. Redlining marks its inception back in the 1930s and it's a system of real estate investment. This system denied access to the people in color to home loans. Federal Home Owners’ Loan Corporation once declared more than 80% of the area presently being gentrified as “hazardous” or “definitely declining” ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"57n9QGBM","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Heller & Post, 2019)","plainCitation":"(Heller & Post, 2019)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":692,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/CN7ZMTAQ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/CN7ZMTAQ"],"itemData":{"id":692,"type":"webpage","title":"How San Francisco broke America's heart","container-title":"SFGate","abstract":"SAN FRANCISCO - A Tuesday afternoon in the Mission District of America's tech wonderland. \n Michael Feno stands outside Lucca Ravioli, his beloved pasta emporium on Valencia, a vestige of old San Francisco, puffing on a cigar while posing for pictures, his customers in tears. \n Living in this city's radically shifting landscape, veterinarian Gina Henriksen found comfort by telling herself, \"Thank God, Lucca is still here. If Lucca goes, I'm going to have to leave San Francisco. What do we have left?\" \n Lucca is no longer here. \n After 94 years, doors shuttered on the last day of April. The parking lot sold for $3.5 million. A three-building parcel, including the store, listed for $8.3 million and was purchased by - need you inquire? - a developer. \n A few blocks away, in this neighborhood of shops hawking $2,600 electric bikes and $8 lemonade, Borderlands Cafe - a throwback with plants cascading from the ceiling - closed the same day after a decade in business. \n Owner Alan Beatts couldn't retain staff, even with a $15 minimum hourly wage. Who can live on $15 an hour in this city transformed by innovation? \n How can Alba Guerra, co-owner of nearby Sun Rise restaurant, continue to charge $10.95 for the housemade vegan chorizo platter after her rent spiked 62 percent last year to $7,800 a month? \n For decades, this coruscating city of hills, bordered by water on three sides, was a beloved haven for reinvention, a refuge for immigrants, bohemians, artists and outcasts. It was the great American romantic city, the Paris of the West. \n No longer. In a time of scarce consensus, everyone agrees that something has rotted in San Francisco. \n Conservatives have long loathed it as the axis of liberal politics and political correctness, but now progressives are carping, too. They mourn it for what...","URL":"https://www.sfgate.com/lifestyle/article/How-San-Francisco-broke-America-s-heart-13866685.php","author":[{"family":"Heller","given":"Karen"},{"family":"Post","given":"The Washington"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2019",5,21]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Heller & Post, 2019). These formerly redlined areas were sometimes given new names in order to attract new residents. A report by Azucena Rasilla and Bond Graham reveals that sometimes realtors bring the historic name back. Public and private disinvestment was also witnessed owing to highway expansion that cut through the neighborhood ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5lBQxcho","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rasilla, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Rasilla, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":699,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/YKR4D564"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/YKR4D564"],"itemData":{"id":699,"type":"webpage","title":"Gentrification Changed the Names of Oakland Neighborhoods","container-title":"East Bay Express","abstract":"\"NOBE,\" \"Reservoir Hills,\" and \"Baja Dimond\" are efforts to put a genteel stamp on Oakland.","URL":"https://www.eastbayexpress.com/oakland/gentrification-changed-the-names-of-oakland-neighborhoods/Content?oid=20313470","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Rasilla","given":"Darwin BondGraham","suffix":"Azucena"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rasilla, n.d.).

Venture capital and technology firms also rendered the process of urban displacement in the Bay Area of San Francisco. The exponential growth of technology companies in San Francisco owes the influx of venture capital from tech giants around the world ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hU6PHkIO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Richards, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Richards, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":697,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/KK65VP7C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/KK65VP7C"],"itemData":{"id":697,"type":"webpage","title":"The Forces Driving Gentrification in Oakland","container-title":"East Bay Express","abstract":"The East Bay has seen a widening gap between rich and poor and the displacement of people who are low-income and of color. But it doesn't have to be this way.","URL":"https://www.eastbayexpress.com/oakland/the-forces-driving-gentrification-in-oakland/Content?oid=20312733","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Richards","given":"Kathleen"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Richards, n.d.). In addition, gentrification in San Francisco also owes the new construction of rental housing, for these types of constructions are more suitable for individuals with higher income. Moreover, the benefit provided to the tenants, which convinced landlords to remove 30% of the units from the rental market also fueled gentrification ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HVGTKfAX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(\\uc0\\u8220{}\\uc0\\u8216{}We\\uc0\\u8217{}re being pushed out\\uc0\\u8217{}: the displacement of black Oakland | US news | The Guardian,\\uc0\\u8221{} n.d.)","plainCitation":"(“‘We’re being pushed out’: the displacement of black Oakland | US news | The Guardian,” n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":695,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/76H3W9ST"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/76H3W9ST"],"itemData":{"id":695,"type":"webpage","title":"'We're being pushed out': the displacement of black Oakland | US news | The Guardian","URL":"https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/jun/01/from-black-panthers-to-bbq-becky-the-displacement-of-black-oakland","accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (“‘We’re being pushed out’: the displacement of black Oakland | US news | The Guardian,” n.d.). Furthermore, subprime lending boom coupled with white flight and foreclosure crisis also set the stage for gentrification.

Implications

Gentrification in San Francisco paved the way for tech boom that changed the city map altogether. Some people are of the view that the tech boom in San Francisco attracted more technical person to the city. The influx of people with technical skills definitely spawned new ideas in San Francisco. Notwithstanding the fact that gentrification raised the cost of living, however, gentrification provided the neighborhood with a chance to consider new ideas in businesses and create more job opportunities. The socio-economic condition of San-Francisco got better as unemployment in San Francisco is just 4.8%.

As far as the negative impacts of gentrification are concerned, it promoted income inequality in the Bay Area of San Francisco. Albeit, gentrification did not render income inequality directly, however, demographic shifts are responsible for this income inequality. Demographic shifts are one of the direct negative implications of gentrification. Gentrification has ripple effects that always continue forward. In addition, a rising number of eviction notices is also a problem that owes gentrification ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0yhZkBlX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Solnit, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Solnit, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":691,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/MKSHEGMF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/MKSHEGMF"],"itemData":{"id":691,"type":"article-newspaper","title":"Death by gentrification: the killing that shamed San Francisco | Rebecca Solnit","container-title":"The Guardian","section":"US news","source":"www.theguardian.com","abstract":"The long read: Alejandro Nieto was killed by police in the neighbourhood where he spent his whole life. Did he die because a few white newcomers saw him as a menacing outsider?","URL":"https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/mar/21/death-by-gentrification-the-killing-that-shamed-san-francisco","ISSN":"0261-3077","title-short":"Death by gentrification","language":"en-GB","author":[{"family":"Solnit","given":"Rebecca"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016",3,21]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Solnit, 2016).

Solutions

The strategies to counter displacement and to combat gentrification include the production of more houses, preservation of existing affordable housing and increasing tenant protections. In order to ensure tenant protection specific rent control law must be reviewed again. This law actually affected the total rental stock and rental prices in the city so, it is important to build houses for people who have low income. Fees should be introduced for the new housing development in order to generate more revenue, bond issuance could also be pivotal for generating more revenues ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"AIfAJHKO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Richards, n.d.)","plainCitation":"(Richards, n.d.)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":697,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/KK65VP7C"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/jsvqEXt1/items/KK65VP7C"],"itemData":{"id":697,"type":"webpage","title":"The Forces Driving Gentrification in Oakland","container-title":"East Bay Express","abstract":"The East Bay has seen a widening gap between rich and poor and the displacement of people who are low-income and of color. But it doesn't have to be this way.","URL":"https://www.eastbayexpress.com/oakland/the-forces-driving-gentrification-in-oakland/Content?oid=20312733","language":"en","author":[{"family":"Richards","given":"Kathleen"}],"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2019",7,9]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Richards, n.d.). Developers must be compelled to be transparent and honest about the profit they earn from the housing. In the end, development is not the problem in San Francisco but the paradigm of development.

References

ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Heller, K., & Post, T. W. (2019, May 21). How San Francisco broke America’s heart. Retrieved July 9, 2019, from SFGate website: https://www.sfgate.com/lifestyle/article/How-San-Francisco-broke-America-s-heart-13866685.php

Rasilla, D. B., Azucena. (n.d.). Gentrification Changed the Names of Oakland Neighborhoods. Retrieved July 9, 2019, from East Bay Express website: https://www.eastbayexpress.com/oakland/gentrification-changed-the-names-of-oakland-neighborhoods/Content?oid=20313470

Richards, K. (n.d.). The Forces Driving Gentrification in Oakland. Retrieved July 9, 2019, from East Bay Express website: https://www.eastbayexpress.com/oakland/the-forces-driving-gentrification-in-oakland/Content?oid=20312733

Solnit, R. (2016, March 21). Death by gentrification: The killing that shamed San Francisco | Rebecca Solnit. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/mar/21/death-by-gentrification-the-killing-that-shamed-san-francisco

“We’re being pushed out”: the displacement of black Oakland | US news | The Guardian. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/jun/01/from-black-panthers-to-bbq-becky-the-displacement-of-black-oakland

Subject: Critical Appraisal

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Diabetes

Title page

Diabetes

The patient is a 35-years old female diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. She is struggling to lose weight so it is important to design an effective care plan that assists her in overcoming obesity. However, it is crucial to consider her medical conditions such as the BMI is >30 and recorded as 31. HbA1c is 8.2 while the goal is to bring it the level of 7 or less than 7. The assessment of the medical condition of the patient depicts that she face high risks of coronary heart disease. She is taking medications like Metformin Gm bid.

The assessment of the patient’s conditions depicts that she requires an efficient weight management plan. Therapeutic intervention is an effective tool for controlling obesity among diabetic patients. The plan stresses on the adoption of a lifestyle intervention that will encourage Amanda to change her unhealthy lifestyle. This intervention will require changes in dietary and physical patterns. Guidelines are adopted for lifestyle intervention that highlights the instructions for dietary patterns and physical activity. the baseline weight reduction is set for 4-6 months. The intervention is essential because the reduction of weight is linked to declining in hypertension that further minimize the risks of cardiovascular disease CITATION Luc15 \l 1033 (Gaal & Scheen, 2015).

Lipid-lowering medications are also suggested because they have a significant impact on controlling obesity. The dose of such medications is more likely to enhance glycemic control. This is advised with extreme dietary reduction because it increases the possibilities of weight reduction. The goal is to use “low-calorie diets can reduce A1C to <6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and fasting glucose to <126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) in the absence of pharmacological therapy or ongoing procedures” CITATION ADA16 \l 1033 (ADA, 2016). It is also confirmed that the level of glucose is maintained at stable levels. The use of medication is advised once a day. The patient is advised to take low-calorie food for attaining better results. The facts indicate that the use of this medication with low-calorie food increases the chances of weight reduction. The dietary plan suggests that the patient follows a proper timetable and take three meals. The patient is advised to consume low iron and low-calorie food. Amanda must use vegetables, legumes, fruits and milk in her diet. Stress eating must be avoided because it is linked to obesity.

The plan also involves physical activity that will provide details to the patient about exercises and duration. Physical activity is important for maintaining blood glucose levels and minimizing the risks of coronary heart disease. Physical activity is advised according to the health condition and status of the patient. The patient will be advised to perform different exercises that will involve the movement of the body parts. Planned exercise is a practical method for reducing weight as movement causes an increase in energy. Regular exercise delays the consequences of type-2 diabetes. The exercise involved in the plan includes aerobic exercise. It is used for improving the muscle strength, oxidases enzymes and boosts the immune system. The patient will engage in exercise at three different times for 30 minutes in the beginning. She will be discouraged from sitting for a longer duration. The light activity of every 30 minutes boos energy and improves the level of glucose. The appropriate movements involve 15 minutes post-meal walk, 3 minutes light walking and 30 minutes walk in the morning. This improves glycemic control and provides resistance against heart disease CITATION She16 \l 1033 (Colberg, et al., 2016).

The guideline will help me in responding to the patient’s concerns because it provides proper information about the procedures that are required to be followed in a lifestyle intervention. I will use them for developing effective care or treatment plan for the patient. It will allow me to evaluate the benefits and outcomes of all interventions and choose the most suitable one. I am also useful for identifying the procedures adopted during interaction with the patient.

The process of assessing the guidelines is conducive to rapid appraisal for quick decisions in the clinical practice. I consulted the guidelines for identifying the medications and therapy that could have significant impacts on controlling weight. The guidelines are time effective because I relied on them for choosing the goal-oriented practices and interventions. By consulting the guidelines I was able to identify the type of exercises that were appropriate for Amanda such as aerobic exercise and walk. Another important aspect of the guidelines is that it provides information on the time of exercise. It included details about appropriate exercise time for patients with type 2 diabetes according to age. I relied on the guidelines for improving the consistency and quality of service. it prevents unnecessary errors and highlights solutions for different situations CITATION Luc15 \l 1033 (Gaal & Scheen, 2015).

The process is useful for my clinical practice because it provides me with adequate knowledge and awareness required for addressing the concerns of the patient in healthcare settings. The process familiarized me with the potential benefits of the discussed interventions that I will use in future clinical practices. It is useful for determining the limitations and harms of each practice. Evidence-based guidelines minimize the risks of negligence and adverse outcomes. I will adopt them for providing enhanced quality of care to the patient and for attaining positive health outcomes. Another significant benefit of the process is that it eliminates the chances of errors in clinical practice such as the wrong prescription.

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY ADA. (2016). Obesity Management for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 39.

Colberg, S. R., Sigal, R. J., Yardley, J. E., Riddell, M. C., Dunstan, D. W., Dempsey, P. C., et al. (2016). Physical Activity/Exercise and Diabetes: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 29 (11), 2065-2079.

Gaal, L. V., & Scheen, A. (2015). Weight Management in Type 2 Diabetes: Current and Emerging Approaches to Treatment. Diabetes Care, 38 (6), 1161-1172.

Subject: Critical Appraisal

Pages: 3 Words: 900

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