Quantitative Research Method - Examples and Topics

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Quantitative Research

Quantitative research is about the use of computational and mathematical tools to drive results. It is a structured way to collect and analyze data from different sources.

This type of research is more related to the subjective meaning of an individual experience. It can be used to create hypotheses from the data.

There are different types of research methodologies used for various purposes. In this article, we will discuss what quantitative research is, its basic types, and examples.

Quantitative Research Definition

A quantitative research method is used to collect and analyze numerical data. It emphasizes the study of things in natural settings.

The purpose of this research is to create a better understanding of the social world. Here., several methods are used to find patterns for making predictions and testing causal relationships.

Moreover, such research is mainly used in social sciences, including psychology, economics, chemistry, etc.

Characteristics of Quantitative Research

Below-given are some of the most prominent characteristics of this research.

  • A large sample size is used to conduct research.
  • Structured methods are used to conduct this research.
  • The outcome of the research is reliable and easy to understand.
  • The data gathered from one research can be used for another research problem.
  • Data collected from this research is in the form of numbers and statistics. It can be arranged in non-textual forms such as graphs, tables, and charts.

Advantages of Quantitative Research

Here are the strengths of the quantitative research approach:

  • First, you can repeat the data for different research topics.
  • Second, as the data is collected and analyzed numerically, the results obtained from it are highly reliable.
  • It provides a broad scope for data collection.
  • There is no scope for personal biasing, and the results are mostly fair.

Limitations of Quantitative Research

The following are the limitations of the quantitative research approach:

  • This research type sometimes uses unnatural settings
  • It may affect the data collection and analysis process
  • This type of research sometimes collects a narrower dataset
  • Structural biases can affect it

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Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

Below you find the major similarities and differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods.

Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Focus
Quality Quantity
Objective
For understanding, describing, generating a hypothesis For confirming, predicting, and testing a hypothesis
Data Collection Methods
Surveys, interviews, observations, polls, questionnaires Focus groups, case studies, group discussions, interviews, literature reviews
Setting
Natural Artificial
Mode of Analysis
Inductive Deductive
Data
Qualitative data is descriptive Quantitative data is informative
Based on
Opinions and experiences Numbers
Example
Height: Tall Height: 5’5’’

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Quantitative Research Methods

The quantitative research methodology can be used for descriptive, experimental, or correlational research.

In descriptive quantitative research, provide summarized information on study variables. Whereas, in experimental research, examine if there is any relationship (cause and effect) between your study variables. Moreover, You can investigate the type of relationship between the variables in correlational research.

The following are the primary and secondary methods of quantitative research types.

Primary Quantitative Research Methods

The four different types of quantitative research methods are:

  • Survey research (online, telephone, face to face, questionnaires, etc.)
  • Correlational research
  • Causal-comparative research
  • Experimental research

Secondary Quantitative Research Methods

The four different types of quantitative research methods are:

  • Data available on the internet
  • Government sources
  • Non-government sources
  • Educational institutes
  • Public libraries
  • Mass media sources

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Data Collection Methods in Quantitative Research

The next step in primary quantitative research is data collection. It can be divided into two major methods discussed below.

  1. 1. Sampling Methods

    There are two basic methods of sampling; probability and non-probability sampling.

    In probability sampling, you take individuals by random selection to create samples. Each member has an equal opportunity to be selected in the selection process.

    In non-probability sampling, the researcher creates samples based on his knowledge and experience. Not all of the members of the research population have an equal opportunity to be selected.

  2. 2. Survey and Polls

    Once the sample is decided, distribute the surveys or polls to collect the data for conducting this research.

    A survey is used to collect data from a group of people to get insight on various topics. The surveys can be distributed through email, social distribution, QR code, SMS survey, etc.

    Polls are another method to get feedback. This is done through the close-ended questions from the target audience. Exit polls and election polls are the most common types of polls.

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Data Analysis Techniques in Quantitative Research

The third and one of the important steps is data analysis. After collecting the data, relate the outcomes to the research objective and establish its statistical relevance.

You can use one of the following analysis methods to analyze your quantitative data.

  • SWOT Analysis - Organizations use it to evaluate their performances.
  • Conjoint Analysis - It is a market analysis method used to understand how people make purchasing decisions.
  • Cross-tabulation - A method used to create relationships, patterns, and trends with various research parameters.
  • Turf Analysis - It is used to rank combinations of products and how many people will like them.

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Quantitative Research Design

Before you start your quantitative study, you must decide whether it is descriptive or experimental. In this way, you will get a clear idea of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data.

Here is a basic research design for all types of quantitative research studies.

  1. Introduction

    The introduction of quantitative research is written in the present tense and covers the following information.

    • States clearly and concisely the research problem
    • View literature on the topic and synthesize the critical information
    • Provide an outline of your research study
  2. Methodology

    In this section, you need to describe the objective of your study. Also, provide all the details to help the readers make an informed decision.

    Keep in mind to cover the following points.

    • Information about the population and sampling
    • Data collection tools and methods
    • Describe the procedure used for the processing and analyzing of data
  3. Results

    Write the findings of your study clearly and objectively. You can use tables, graphs, charts, and other non-textual methods to help the readers understand the results better.

  4. Discussion

    Provide logical and comprehensive information in the discussion section. Here you need to show how your findings relate to those outlined in the theoretical framework of your study.

    Make sure to cover the following aspects.

    • Provide interpretation of your results
    • Describe trends, comparisons, and relationships among variables
    • What the outcome means
    • Describe any limitation in your study
  5. Conclusion

    In the last section, summarize the topic and provide a final perspective on the study. Cover the following information for an impressive conclusion.

    • Summary of your findings
    • Recommendations
    • Future research

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Quantitative Research Example

Review the following example of quantitative research to understand the concept better.

Descriptive Essay Outline Sample

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Quantitative Research Topics

Quantitative research topics and questions can be tricky sometimes. You need to choose something that you can easily answer. We have provided you with some top research topics that you can choose from.

  • Discuss the relationship between immigration and crime statistics.
  • What is the impact of education on obesity?
  • Is communism an ideal solution?
  • Discuss the impact of brain chips.
  • What is the role of nuclear energy in today’s world?
  • How does economic growth and hard work relate to each other?
  • Discuss the current state of education in the United States.
  • Sleep deprivation and the role of social media. Relate the two concepts.
  • Explain the link between economic status and academic achievement.
  • Should marijuana be legalized?

These are the basic guidelines that you should go through before starting the research. Moreover, this detailed guide will also help you understand the importance of quantitative research.

Hopefully, now you know how to conduct quantitative research. Still not sure about what type of study you should use? A professional essay writer at FreeEssayWriter.net can be of great help.

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