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Complete Guide on NLM Citation for Beginners

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Published on: Jul 12, 2020

Last updated on: Jan 20, 2023

NLM Citation

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Are you looking for an easy way to format your medicine research paper? Then, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) citation style may be what you need. It is a simple yet effective citation style that helps researchers cite medical sources.

The NLM style is a more modern system of in-text citation and referencing. It uses numbers, not names, for its citations, making it easier to read than other styles that use the author's surnames or the year.

Want to know more about NLM citation? Then, read this blog and get complete information about it.

What is the NLM Citation Format?

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) writing style is often used in medicine and kinesiology. The International Committee for Medical Journal Editors has introduced this citation style, providing guidelines for presenting the information.

In NLM citation style, you should keep some points in your mind:

  • In a bibliography, you use "References" as the page heading.
  • In-text citations: There are three ways to cite sources. Ask your professor which way they want you to use.
  • Use Vancouver format if the citation software does not use the NLM format.

For writers, editors and publishers, the NLM citation is a valuable tool to help format all of your references in one place. For authors, their citations must look perfect to be referred back to when writing future works without worrying about formatting mistakes.

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NLM Citation In-Text

In-text citations are used to tell readers about the sources that you use in your paper. They also help to avoid plagiarism. This is where you give credit to the original writer.

The NLM citation style has three kinds of citation styles. They are:

1. Citation Name Sequence
The superscript number in this citation tells the number of references and citations in the content.

Example: A reference authored by Brown would be number 1, by Baker number 2, etc.

2. The Citation and Sequence Style
The superscript number refers to a full citation or reference in your list of references.

Example: If a reference by Oil is the first one referred to in the text, then the Oil reference is number one in the list.

"...reference to Oil article1".

3. Name and Year Citation Style
When citing your sources, write the author's last name and the year of publication inside parentheses at the end of what you are quoting.

Example: “…reference to Brennan article. (Brennan 2020)”.

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NLM Citation Format

The NLM citation style is a popular one among academic writers. However, it requires ample knowledge and guidance.

This style was developed for the medical field of study. This means that you should know its format for citing different sources.

For your help, we gathered some citation styles that help you cite different sources.

Sources Format
BookSurname First-and-Middle-Initials, Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Title. [Edition.] Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. [Language.]
E-BookSurname First-and-Middle-Initials, Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Title [Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [Date of Citation]. Availability.
Book ChapterChapter Author’s Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Chapter Title. In: Book Editor’s Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Book title. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. Pagination.
Journal or MagazineSurname First-and-Middle-Initials, Surname First-and-Middle Initials. Article Title. Journal Title. Date of Publication; Volume(Issue): Pagination.
Online Journal or MagazineSurname First-and-Middle-Initials, Surname First-and-Middle Initials. Article Title. Journal Title [Type of Medium]. Date of Publication [date of citation]; Volume(Issue): Pagination. Availability.
NewspaperSurname First-and-Middle-Initials. Article Title. Newspaper Title [Type of Medium] (Edition). Date of Publication [date of revision, date of citation]: Section; Volume(Issue): Pagination. Availability.
WebsiteSurname First-and-Middle-Initials. Webpage Title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [date of revision, date of citation]. Availability.
LecturesAuthor (Author affiliation, location). Title of presentation [Unpublished lecture notes]. Lecture for: class (Recipient affiliation, location). Date of the lecture.
ThesisAuthor. Title of book [master's thesis]. [Place of publication]: Publisher; year of completion. The number of pages p.
Online Government and Organization ReportsAuthor(s) or responsible body (Author affiliation or performing organization). Title of report [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year Month Day of publication [cited Year Month Day]. Total number of pages p. Report No.: Report number. Contract No.: contract number. Available from: URL
Online VideosTitle of homepage [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication of the homepage. [Video], Title of video; date of publication of video [cited date viewed]; [length of video]. Available from: URL
DVDs and CDsAuthor(s). Title of recording [type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; year of publication. Extent: physical description.
Images in Online BooksAuthor(s). Title of book [Internet]. Edition. City (US State abbreviation or Country): Publisher; year. [Figure or Table] Title of figure; [cited Year Month Day]; [page]. Available from: URL
Images in Online ArticlesAuthor(s). Title of the article. Abbreviated Journal Name [Internet]. Year Month Day; vol(issue): pages. Figure or Table, Title of figure or name; [cited Year Month Day]; p. A number of page figures or tables are located. Available from: URL
Online Poster Session PresentationsAuthor(s). Title of presentation [Internet]. Poster session presented at: Name of Conference. Conference proceedings title. Name of society meeting or conference title; Year Month Day(s) of meeting or conference; Place of meeting or conference. Available from: URL

NLM Citation Example

Here is an NLM citation sample that will help you cite sources properly.

NLM Citation Sample

Now, you get a complete guide on NLM citation. However, if you need professional writing assistance, simply consult FreeEssayWriter.net.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Is NLM citation the same as Vancouver?

These two styles are the same. NLM has a version with month and date, issue number, and one without. Sometimes people become confused because of this. But that distinction has nothing to do with Vancouver.

What is the difference between NLM and Vancouver?

NLM is commonly used in the medical field to cite medicine sources. The Vancouver citation style uses numbers to indicate how references were made.

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Caleb S. has been providing writing services for over five years and has a Masters degree from Oxford University. He is an expert in his craft and takes great pride in helping students achieve their academic goals. Caleb is a dedicated professional who always puts his clients first.

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